Monday, August 24, 2020

Definition and Examples of Replacives in English

Definition and Examples of Replacives in English In English sentence structure and morphology, a replacive is a word component that substitutes for another component inside a stem. For instance, the e in men (the plural type of man) is viewed as a replacive component. Replacives areâ considered to be allomorphs, notes Philip Orazio Tartaglia. All the more explicitly, the replacive associated with going from goose to geese is an allomorph of the plural morpheme. Accordingly, we see that young men, felines, roses, bulls, sheep, and geese, all contain the plural morpheme however each contains aâ different allomorph of the plural morpheme (Problems in the Construction of a Theory of Natural Language).â Models and Observations The term [replacive] is especially utilized in the mark replacive transform or replacive morpheme to empower unpredictable structures, for example, men from man and sang or sung from sing to be depicted in morphemic terms, in spite of falling outside the direct principles for framing thing plurals or past action word shapes by the expansion of inflections.(Sylvia Chalker and Edmund Weiner, Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar. Oxford University Press, 1994)Tooth and Teeth: One Word or Two?-  [A] manufactured, tooth-shaded material the consistency of mixture is synthetically combined onto recolored, chipped, generally dispersed, or distorted teeth and formed into whatever new shape is desired.(Justine De Lacy, The New Skin of Your Teeth. New York, August 3, 1981)- Consider then the sentences This tooth needs consideration and These teeth need consideration. Are tooth and teeth examples of a similar word or of various words? In one sense they are plainly unique: they vary in articula tion, spelling, which means and in their syntactic conduct. In another sense, in any case, they are indications of a solitary component, and to be sure they are generally supposed to be types of a similar word. We along these lines have two unmistakable ideas here, the subsequent more dynamic than the principal: I will utilize word in the less conceptual detect and present the term lexeme for the more unique one. Along these lines I will say that tooth and teeth are various words, yet types of a similar lexeme. . . .All the more decisively, we will say that tooth and teeth are diverse inflectional types of tooth, and will talk about particular and plural here as inflectional properties. So also with action words: sang and sung, for instance, are separately the past tense and the past participle types of the lexeme sing.(Rodney Huddleston, English Grammar: An Outline. Cambridge University Press, 1988) Action words Derived From Nouns[W]e treat thing plurals in English, for example, men, feet, mice, teeth as happening with replacives (for example substitutions which are morphemic). . . . Replacive morphemes . . . may comprise of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes . . .. A somewhat rarer sort of substitution is spoken to by the English arrangement shower : wash, sheath : sheathe, wreath : wreathe, teeth : teethe, safe : spare, conflict : endeavor, hoodlum : steal, pain : lament, half : split, rack : hold, serf : serve, guidance : prompt, house/haws/: house/hawz/, and so on. In each pair, the thing has a voiceless continuant, the action word a voiced continuant. In the event that we consent to get the action words from the things, we set up three replacive components . . .; however since these three components show a phonetic-semantic likeness to one another, and since their event is phonologically molded, we join them into a solitary replacive morpheme.(Eugene A. Nida, The Identifi cation of Morphemes. Morphology: Critical Concepts in Linguistics, ed. by Francis Katamba. Routledge, 2004)

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Motivations for Mobile Phone Use in Rural and Urban Areas

Inspirations for Mobile Phone Use in Rural and Urban Areas Affirmation I might as a matter of first importance want to recognize the liberality of the locals of Telav, Shela, Kaneti(Gujarat) and Amgachia(WB) who regardless of their bustling life set aside some effort to let me comprehend their lives. I am likewise profoundly obligated to Prof. Rajat Iyer and Prof. Arbind Sinha, Faculty MICA,for being a proposition direct in each feeling of the word. I might likewise want to express gratitude toward Mr Shailesh Yagnik, Librarian MICA, and all the library staff for their monstrous participation without which this probably won't have been conceivable. I might likewise want to say thanks to Prof. Rajneesh Krishna for explaining my questions about different Market explore apparatuses and philosophies in spite of his occupied scheduleand commitment. I might likewise want to say thanks to Mr. Raj Kumar Jha,OM Outreach who imparted to us significant contributions to Rural advertising and motivated me to deal with this subject. I might want to thank my folks who have been a consistent wellspring of motivation for me and have held me through high points and low points throughout my life. I might likewise want to thank every one of my companions for helping me sort out my thoughts,constant consolation, restless evenings and chota breaks. Much obliged folks for giving me certainty to present this archive. Official outline Today Mobile telephones have made their quality felt in urban India as well as in provincial territories. This wonder has expanded the extent of marking which most organization thought about an intense turf in rustic India. In spite of the fact that it might appear to be an implausible thought as of now however considering the goliath jump the economies of creating countries like India is making, tapping of country markets building brands for this market bode well. Imaginative utilization of Mobile application is helping war torn Afghanistan battle debasement and hoist the way of life of its kin. So also in creating countries, application produced for nearby needs like M-Pesa in South Africa, Pesapal in Kenya are discovering buyers and helping the brands have an effect. Study in the past led in different geologies have created model for either urban purchaser or straightforwardly summed up model for portable promoting. From the writing survey hardly any components were determined for portable promoting like (1) utility, (2) setting, (3) control, (4) penance, and (5) trust. My examination intends to takes a shot at these parameters, however explicitly on country India to discover mentality and social ramifications of portable promoting. The examination additionally incorporates innovation boundaries progression in India and obstructions identified with social ramifications in country territories like language and social distinction. With the end goal of the investigation a subjective research has been dispatched across two districts †Gujarat and West Bengal. This was a differentiating study to discover the inspiration fundamental the utilization of cell phones and the possibility of versatile advertising across two outrageous geologies since West Bengal is one of the least portable shrewd state while Gujarat has one of the most noteworthy cell phone clients. Center gathering conversation profundity interviews with the assistance of projective strategies uncovered the hidden inspiration for utilizing portable promoting. It for the most part fortified the way that while rustic customer don't need interruption in their life they are eager to open up the space for better expectations for everyday comforts. Henceforth the craving to pick up information and bring in cash to hoist the expectations for everyday comforts was of prime significance. The investigation likewise uncovers certain confinement to portable publicizing which must be remembered while structuring any versatile promoting efforts. At long last the investigation proposes a system to encourage acknowledgment of versatile advertising message among shopper and boost promoting target of brands, which laid out as follow 1. Work together with Service suppliers It is a success win circumstance for the specialist organizations just as the advertisers and not to overlook the purchaser, if the logical focusing of publicizing is kept up. 2. Accuracy focusing on It is compensating for promoter since they can defeat the test of foreseeing whos on the opposite side of an item or administration buy and target them with brands as per the socioeconomics 3. Create content applicable for the purchasers in a joint effort with Media offices Create substance of critical significance by understanding the everyday existence of country customer for example the language help application which can possibly turn into a lifestyle for the shopper and afterward just can a brand arrive at the phase of reverberation in the brain of provincial purchaser As a finishing up note, this theoretical examination offers to give a conversation on how versatile publicizing may sponsor remote framework development among oppressed social orders and permit advertisers to target all the more explicitly the purchaser in media dim locale. Likewise with the coordinated effort of private accomplices the social advancement in rustic territories with the assistance of portable correspondence will be quicker. Advertisers can expand their customer base by focusing on the colossal potential at the base of pyramid and henceforth increment their main concern fundamentally just as convey to their guarantee of corporate social duty. Presentation C. K. Prahlad in his book â€Å"The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid† says, â€Å"If we quit thinking about the poor as casualties or as a weight and begin remembering them as flexible and innovative business visionaries and worth cognizant purchasers, an entirely different universe of chance will open up†. This announcement has been taken to like an absolute truth by advertisers in India and many are currently making a decent attempt to focus on this undiscovered potential. India is a nation of 1.13 billion, out of which 70% of the individuals are living in the provincial India. The advertisers all around the globe inspired by India are getting increasingly inquisitive to investigate the rustic potential. With 128 million families, the country populace is multiple times the urban. Because of provincial prosperity, fuelled by great storm and the expansion in agribusiness to 200 million tones, the rustic India has enormous expending class of 41% of working class and8 58% of the absolute extra cash. The Census of India characterizes Rural India as anything which isn't urban. Town is characterized as an essential unit for the rustic territories is the income town, may include a few villas outlined by physical limits. Along these lines a Rural is characterized when it meets the accompanying rules Least Population Populace thickness 25% of the male populace occupied with farming action Hold Bank of India characterizes country as ‘Locations with populace up to 10,000 will be considered as rustic and 10,000 to 100,000 as semi-urban. Additionally NABARD, Planning Commission, Sahara likewise characterize the towns on populace rules. As referenced in The Rural Marketing Book, Pradeep Kashyap and Siddhartha Raut (ed.2008), the rustic economy has seen gigantic development since 1990s as a result of thirteen successive great storms. This different radical changes in country advertise has been tribute to this turn of events, some of them are as per the following; There has been a 600% expansion in the expense of rustic advancement programs in the multi year plans from Eighth to Tenth Multi year plan. 41 million Kisan Credit Cards (KCC) has been given since the initiation of the plan adding up to a sum of Rs. 97,700 crore of total credit. The quantity of KCC gave is more than the 40 million credit-in addition to check cards gave in urban India. Additionally a 230% expansion in the progression of institutional credit for agribusiness from 1997-98 to 2004-05 has been enlisted. Today Mobile telephones are pervasive in urban India as well as in country territories. This wonder has expanded the extent of marking which most organization thought about an intense turf in provincial India. In spite of the fact that it might appear to be an outlandish thought right now however considering the monster jump the economies of creating countries like India is making, tapping of rustic markets building brands for this market bode well. There is for all intents and purposes no marking exertion in these territories so a degree for brand striking nature reverberation doesnt increment. For the most part marks in these zones right presently are contending on value focuses which will stop to exist as differentiator as client turns out to be more advanced offered with monetary ability. However, there appear to mark endeavors from the advertisers perspective and furthermore there is some establishment on factors other than cost from the purchaser see. A great deal of work in the field of versatile communication has been going around for example A group of MIT Media Labs Next Billion Network members up and coming age of tech movers and shakers-who are building advances to help individuals in the creating country to raise their earnings, figure out how to peruse, get where theyre going, and analyze their wellbeing. (david-chandler, july-2-2009) Inventive utilization of Mobile application is helping war torn Afghanistan battle debasement and lift the way of life of its kin as portrayed in the accompanying new report. (Loyn, 2009) Nokia have likewise felt the country potential and created item purchaser in those areas. Indeed, even their correspondence for the Model 1100 has been explicitly focused at the country crowd completely depicting the need in the provincial settings. (Banerjee Sangameshwaran, 2009) Additionally the estimation of VAS industry is evaluated to be Rs.16500 crores by 2010 as per an examination by RNCOS, with venture into country markets where more administrations in banking, gaming information and TV fragment will be seen. (Portable VAS to Drive Telecom Growth, 2009). In this manner the fate of portable promoting looks idealistic and with rustic economies incorporating with a supportable model, advertisers have to no longer consider the arrival on showcasing venture. Writing survey In the accompanying writing survey, I have assessed the different distributed articles white papers from diaries, books Reports. First I have investigated the information made on rustic advertising it suggestion, in this space a great deal of work has been finished with

Thursday, July 23, 2020

Book Riots Deals of the Day for June 9th, 2019

Book Riots Deals of the Day for June 9th, 2019 Sponsored by Book of the Month. A Nearly Normal Family by M.T. Edvardsson is a family-centric legal thriller with a certified last page “whoa” moment. Get the hardcover for $9.99 when you join Book of the Month today. These deals were active as of this writing, but may expire soon, so get them while they’re hot! Todays  Featured Deals Better: A Surgeons Notes on Performance by Atul Gawande for $3.99. Get it here, or just click on the cover image below. Queens of the Conquest: Englands Medieval Queens Book One by Alison Weir for $2.99. Get it here, or just click on the cover image below. Making Gay History: The Half-Century Fight for Lesbian and Gay Equal Rights by Eric Marcus for $2.99. Get it here, or just click on the cover image below. In Case You Missed Yesterdays Most Popular Deals Ninefox Gambit by Yoon Ha Lee for $1.99. Get it here, or just click on the cover image below. Call Me by Your Name by André Aciman for $3.99. Get it here, or just click on the cover image below. Previous Daily Deals That Are Still Active As Of This Writing (Get em While Theyre hot!): I Hate Everyone But You by Gaby Dunn and Allison Raskin for $2.99 Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe for $1.99 How to Write an Autobiographical Novel: Essays by Alexander Chee for $2.99 If I Was Your Girl by Meredith Russo for $2.99 The Night Circus  by Erin Morgenstern  for $2.99 Behind the Throne  by Adrian Tinniswood  for $3.99 The Poppy War  by R. F. Kuang  for $2.99 Claire Dewitt and the City of the Dead  by Sara Gran  for $2.99 All the Ugly and Wonderful Things  by Bryn Greenwood  for $2.99 Carrie  by Stephen King for $2.99 Hogwarts: an Incomplete and Unreliable Guide  by J.K. Rowling  for $2.99 Short Stories from Hogwarts  by J.K. Rowling  for $2.99 That Kind of Mother  by Rumaan Alam for $1.99 Secondhand Time by Svetlana Alexievich for $4.99 The Hypnotists Love Story by Liane Moriarty for $1.99 The Hike  by Drew Magary  for $4.99 Cant Escape Love  by Alyssa Cole  for $1.99 Jade City by Fonda Lee for $4.99 The Paper Magician by Charlie N. Holmberg for $1.99 Soulless (Parasol Protectorate Series Book 1) by Gail Carriger for $4.99 The Girl with the Red Balloon by Katherine Locke  for $1.99 Gods, Monsters, and the Lucky Peach by Kelly Robson for $3.99 The Invisible Library by Genevieve Cogman for $0.99 Half-Resurrection Blues by Daniel José Older for $2.99 Cant Escape Love by Alyssa Cole for $1.99 Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman for $0.99. Cane by Jean Toomer for $2.78 The Haunting of Tram Car 015 by P. Djèlí Clark for $3.99 A Quiet Life in the Country by T E Kinsey for $3.99 Empire of Sand by Tasha Suri for $4.99 Life and Death in Shanghai by Nien Cheng for $4.99 Binti  by Nnedi Okorafor for $1.99 Binti: Home  by Nnedi Okorafor for $2.99 Binti: The Night Masquerade by Nnedi Okorafor for $3.99 Instant Pot ®  Obsession: The Ultimate Electric Pressure Cooker Cookbook for Cooking Everything Fast by Janet A. Zimmerman for $2.99 Rosewater by Tade Thompson for $4.99 A Princess in Theory: Reluctant Royals by Alyssa Cole for $5.99 Tell the Truth Shame the Devil by Lezley McSpadden with Lyah Beth LeFlore for $0.99 Magic Bites by Ilona Andrews for $2.99 Once Ghosted, Twice Shy by Alyssa Cole for  $1.99 Whatever Happened to Interracial Love? by Kathleen Collins for $3.99 In Search of Lost Time: Volumes 1-7  by Marcel Proust  for $0.99 Prime Meridian  by Silvia Moreno-Garcia for $3.99 The Mirror Empire by Kameron Hurley for $2.99 I Met a Traveller in an Antique Land  by Connie Willis for $0.99 Soy Sauce for Beginners by Kirstin Chen for $3.99 Silver Phoenix by Cindy Pon for $2.99 Dragonflight: Volume I in The Dragonriders of Pern by Anne McCaffrey for $2.99 A Curious Beginning by Deanna Raybourn for $2.99 George by Alex Gino for $3.99 My Soul to Keep (African Immortals series) by Tananarive Due for $3.99 Destinys Captive by Beverly Jenkins for $1.99 Howls Moving Castle by Diana Wynne Jones for $2.99 A Rogue By Any Other Name by Sarah MacLean for $1.99 Assassin’s Apprentice (The Farseer Trilogy, Book 1) by Robin Hobb for $2.99 The Price of Salt by Patricia Highsmith for $0.99 Sign up for our Book Deals newsletter and get up to 80% off books you actually want to read.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Essay about Ethical Challenges and Agency Issues - 1725 Words

Ethical Challenges and Agency Issues Analyzing ethical challenges Most people are aware of the ethical challenges businesses face in today’s world especially, in the financial services industry. Financial services became a major target after several scandals such as Enron and MCI. Unfortunately, the financial industry is very large, which encompasses entities such as banks, insurance companies, mortgage lenders, pension, and securities funds. â€Å"The financial service sector represents 20 percent of this index’s market capitalization. Because of the vast size, the industry tends to garner lots of headlines, many of which tout its ethical lapses† (Federwisch). Based on the case study, â€Å"Level of Executive Pay† the Chairperson of NYSE is†¦show more content†¦To remedy the above situations, the principal and agent must have open communication, and take action to remedy the issues. One way for the principal to ensure this is done is to monitor the agent. However, too much mon itoring may be too costly and also affect the decisions made by the agent. The agent may believe he or she cannot make any decisions the client does not feel is in their best interest. Although the decision may be best for the client, he or she may not see it at that point. Another agency issue involves the stockholder-manager relationship. Because managers tend to be the primary decision makers of an organization, they may choose to make decisions in their best interest rather than in the best interest of the stockholders. With this, the principle of self-interested behavior comes in (Emery, et. al., 2007). Stockholders want to maximize their stockholder wealth while the goals of managers tend to be salary, power, status, and growth of the organization (Emery, et. al., 2007). This agency issue was apparent in the case study, â€Å"Level of Executive Pay.† In this case study, there was an investigation by the SEC into the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) because of its e xcessive payments to the NYSE Chairman Richard Grasso (Eldenburg, 2005). The NYSE is a private organization withShow MoreRelatedEthics and It640 Words   |  3 Pagestechnologies are causing an increasing number of ethical problems. The power used to processing computers doubles about every two years. Organizations are more dependent than ever before on their information systems. The Ethical problems arising from the appropriate use of customer information, personal privacy, and the protection of intellectual property have lead to increased laws to regulate the way data is collected. There are also privacy issues involved collecting, storing, and disseminatingRead MoreChallenges Of Recruitment And Selection Process1472 Words   |  6 PagesSix challenges related to recruiting and selection. Recruitment is the process of searching for applicants for a job and after finding qualified candidates, encourage them to apply for positions within an organization. During the recruitment process, the job description should be outlined so that the job matches the expectations of the new employee (Flynn et al, 2015). Making sure that the expectations are aligned to the employee reduces the potential for turnovers (Flynn et al, 2015). Legal IssuesRead MoreAmerican Red Cross Essay768 Words   |  4 Pagesworking for the organization. It has also faced internal challenges due to high turnover, as well as charges of overcompensation and possible corruption among its board of directors and upper management. After bad press, the ARC faces many challenges in marketing itself as a prominent, ethical and transparent nonprofit organization. QUESTIONS 1. Explain the possible problems in the ethical culture of the Red Cross that created the issues discussed in this case. * Problems like executive compensationRead MoreBiotechnology: A Tool of Body Manipulation Essay896 Words   |  4 PagesIn my project I will explore how biotechnology as a tool of body manipulation and enhancement can redefine the contemporary notion of the human and life in a more ethical and aesthetical way. My argument will address ways in which art that engages with biotechnology as its medium, can give a more tangible because ethically and aesthetically combined understanding of life and the human body. I will focus on selected case studies that work with biotechnology to study ways in which art, can reveal theRead MoreThe Ethical Issues I May Encounter Whilst Working As A Professional For Commercial Real Estate1187 Words   |  5 PagesThe ethical issues I may encounter whilst working as a professional in commercial real estate. This essay presupposes that the subjects’ career path begins with a period spent studying towards the assessment of professional competence as set out by the RICS governing body; a logical step at the start of a career in commercial real estate. Whilst there is extensive research on problems of ethics in other countries such as that by Bowen (2007), the focus is on a potential career path based in theRead MoreGroup Counseling1524 Words   |  7 PagesRunning head: Growing Trends in Group Counseling Growing Trends in Group Counseling: Ethical and Technological Issues that Effect Vocational Rehabilitation Term Paper By Diadra McGraw 546 Group Counseling Dr. B. Canfield February 26, 2008 Abstract This paper explores the different ways in which group counseling can be used for the purpose of Vocational Rehabilitation. It also gives detailed information of how technology can be used in group counseling during Vocational RehabilitationRead MoreChallenges of Being an Advocate and Neutral Facilitator777 Words   |  4 PagesChallenges of Being an Advocate and Neutral Facilitator Introduction Advocacy and mediation are continually being integrated into various spectrums of the human services field; but what happens when these two methods of helping present challenges for one another? While ethical, moral, and legal challenges of potential dual relationships are common, there are specific approaches that can be implemented which can help alleviate these stressors. The author will present a personal perceptiveRead MoreEthics and Intervention Techniques Essay730 Words   |  3 PagesEthics Into Agency Operations in Denhardt, Chapter 4, select the two most effective of the 13 Intervention Techniques for Integrating Ethics into Agency Operations and defend your choices. Denhardt explains that ethics is a process by which we clarify right and wrong and act on what we take to be right. Instead of having employees follow a certain set of rules that management is exempt from, Leaders need to behave by example to reset an ethical culture. Consequently, I would consider ethical valuesRead MoreSchool Social Workers Should Be Paid For Their College Expenses1694 Words   |  7 Pagesresources. School social workers can also help identify private sponsors who are willing to provide financial support for undocumented students (Kim, 2013). Furthermore, school social workers should advocate for undocumented students in their school agencies and communities. Perez (2010) recommends that counselors, or social workers, help create a committee or task force that helps fundraise resources and brainstorm ideas on how to better serve undocumented students. Since most undocumented studentsRead MoreEthics and Licensed Professional Counselor1175 Words   |  5 Pages 1. Barbara is a licensed professional counselor (LPC) working for a nonprofit social service agency. Many of the clients in the agency are female domestic violence victims. The director of the agency has asked Barbara to develop a counseling group to serve the needs of these individuals. a. What ethical matters should Barbara consider as she plans this group?Probably the most familiar of ethical issues , is the expectation that communications and information from participants in the course of this

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The American Of Native American History Essay - 2006 Words

Long before Europeans landed on the east coast of the American continent, native peoples were living and thriving across the land. This is historical fact that is taught in schools across the country. However, much of the rest of Native American history that we are exposed to in schools really does not reflect truth. While the broad lessons capture parts of the story, the reality is that much of the history is distorted and paints an inaccurate picture of the tribes and how they were treated by settlers. As the Europeans pressed westward across the Appalachians and into the Ohio valley, conflicts arose and continued as populations levels grew. Many times the Native Americans were portrayed as the aggressors as cultures clashed in the Plains. Obviously, we cannot absolve the tribes of wrong doing and aggressive behavior. However, upon closer inspection, the many times that the U.S. Government dealt with the Indians, they did from a position of dishonesty and force. These trends are es pecially noticeable in the post 1850 historical period and it is this period that cemented the foundation of distrust and anger felt by many tribes. A long tradition of the U.S. Government ignoring its own promises made to the Native American peoples can be easily uncovered with even the most basic research. These trends continue in 2016 with the deployment of the Dakota Access Pipeline, a 30-inch conduit designed to move light, sweet crude oil from the Dakota Bakken region to a distributionShow MoreRelatedNative American History : Native Americans1099 Words   |  5 Pages Native Americans A few thousands of years before the famous and high recognized explore Christopher Columbus’ ships landed in the Bahamas, a distinctive group of people discovered America. The ancestors of modern Native Americans who hiked over a â€Å"land bridge† from Asia more than 12,000 years ago. In fact, there is an estimate that more than 50 million people were already living in the Americas. As time passed, these migrants and their descendants pushed south and east, adapting as they wentRead MoreNative Americans And American History988 Words   |  4 PagesThroughout history, relationships between the Native Americans and the United States have been nothing but battle torn, and unfortunately have followed a consistent path of betrayal. There is no denying the universal fact that Native Americans have been unfairly treated and portrayed throughout American history. According to American history written during and after the war the Indian Wars that occurred were very subjective, and prejudiced in its depiction of the Native Americans. For example oneRead MoreNative American History : Native Americans1879 Words   |  8 Pages†¯Ã¢â‚¬ ¯Native American Lives Since the beginning of time, conquering other societies has been a common occurrence. Almost every battle that has taken place has been documented. When stories of past battles are retold, only one side of the tale gets told, the victor’s side. In history, the ones who have been defeated never get to present their perspective of the tragic quarrels. Most never even lived to tell the stories, but the ones who do survive are not thought of as important accounts in history.Read MoreNative Americans And American History1036 Words   |  5 PagesNative Americans do not experience enough social, political, and economic equality today because their stereotypes are portrayed in media, they do not have enough government representation, and they are not as well off as most Americans. Education plays a big part in how Native Americans are represented. Many schools, according to â€Å"The Coddling of the American Mind,† are overprotective of their students, thus censoring and limiting some important topics that students are required to learn. ThisRead MoreAmerican History: Native Americans 829 Words   |  3 PagesHave you ever wondered what it would be like to be Native American during the European invasion? In American history Native Americans were treated unfairly. The American government mistreated the Natives by lying to them and treating them as foreigners. After years of fighting for freedom the Natives did not achieve their goal for freedom. The Trail of Tears, being the most tragic event in American history, was due to the Removal Act in the 1830s, the misguidance of President Andrew Jackson, theRead MoreNative Americans And American History1396 Words   |  6 PagesNative Americans have remained a prominent aspect of American history; not jus t a history of the people, but a history of the land and the extensive traditions that shadowed it, like footprints in the sand. However, when the Europeans staggered over with indifference towards the natives and their unusual customs, a conflict erupted that dates back hundreds of years and continues into the present. As the United States grew further more intolerant of the natives, the daring judgment to either assimilateRead MoreNative Americans And American History Essay969 Words   |  4 PagesNative Americans, or Indians, as they were mistakenly called, have been the â€Å"pathetic footnotes to the main course of American history† (Axtell 981). But James Axtell, the author of Colonial America without the Indians: Counterfactual Reflections, would beg to differ. He says that instead, Indians played a key role in making America great. James Murray gives another term to describe America’s greatness: America’s â€Å"exceptionalism.† Throughout his art icle Axtell makes many points as to why IndiansRead MoreHistory Of Native Americans1353 Words   |  6 Pagesstarting the California Gold Rush and more than 25,000 Mexicans returned to California to stake their claims. Americans detested their appearance and the Mexicans along with other outsiders were threatened and violently assaulted. One important point that should be stressed, is that throughout this entire fight for these lands, neither nation thought to consider the Indians/Native Americans residing in these areas. In this case, they are the Comanche and the Pueblo Indians. They are completely disregardedRead MoreNative Americans History1879 Words   |  7 PagesWhen asking a child, educated or not, what they ideas are when they hear the term Native American where does they mind venture to? More than likely do they not consider the former House of Representative, Charles D. Curtis or professor pitcher Joba Chamberlain. But they also do not think of a Native American as being an average person, a boy/girl like themselves. What children believe to be Native American are descriptions such as, feather headdresses, tomahawks, and long braided hair or scalpedRead MoreNative American History And History785 Words   |  4 PagesAs we speak and history verifies the very fact of the long-standing planning practices o f American Indian that had enabled them to survive through every hurdle placed in the way. Although many Native American societies didn’t have a written language, many tribes were advanced enough and had written history or organized spiritual ceremonies and practices. Many tribes were destroyed and others moved far away from their ancestral home. Since the origin, and till now, American Indians have been able

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Homeostasis and Cardiovascular System Free Essays

The American physiologist Walter Cannon used the term Homeostasis to describe the body’s ability to maintain a constant stable internal environment despite the changes to the external surrounding1,2. The body has a range of receptors these are used to constantly monitor the body’s internal conditions to keep them in physiological limits. To achieve this, every organ works together and thus the body works together as a whole. We will write a custom essay sample on Homeostasis and Cardiovascular System or any similar topic only for you Order Now This requires body to communicate with the organs, this is established through two very highly specialized systems; nervous system and endocrine system, they use electrical impulses and hormones to communicate respectively1. It is vital for our body to maintain homeostasis for our survival, this ability of the body allows us to adapt to our environment which is why we can live in a variety of different settings3.The mechanism of every homeostatic control has three interdependent components; the receptor, which is a sensor that responds to a change (stimuli) in the environment, by sending information through the afferent pathway to the control center1. The second component, which is the control center, is where the information received is assessed and it is determined whether the conditions are in limits1. The final component is the effector; it uses the information provided by the control center to respond to the change1.The information travels along the efferent pathway from control center to the effector this result in a response to the stimuli1. There are two different homeostatic mechanisms; a negative feedback and a positive feedback. Which mechanism is in action depends on the stimuli. During negative feedback the mechanism reacts by producing a response to the variable in opposite directions, this is achieved through reducing the intensity or cutting off the output completely2. For example, you have your central heating on but you open your window this would result in losing heat hence, reducing the temperature of the room.This change would be detected by the thermostat thus signals will be sent to the boiler to increase the activity. This increase in activity would lead to restoring of the temperature. Now if you close the window and the temperature is established the thermostat would detect this and so will again send signals to the boiler to reduce the activity. For the positive feedback mechanism the body tends to produce a response that increases the activity of the variable so it supports the change1,2. This moves the stimulus further away from its physiological range.This type of control is not as common as the negative control; it has no limits and is more focused on continuous change1. It occurs during the events where frequent adjustment is not required. A very good example for this control is blood clotting. If a blood vessel is damaged, the platelets tend to stick to the site and release chemicals which attract more platelets1. This leads to a rapid accumulation of platelets which eventually forms a clot. The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and the blood vessels. Its job is to pump the blood to all parts of the body.The system contributes to maintain homeostasis in the body at all times whether it’s to do with providing brain cells with oxygen and glucose so that the control center in the brain carry’s on working to its best potential or working with kidneys to control the blood volume. The system itself is very complex and specialized. The blood flow in the body must be kept constant and steady. This requires the body to work as a whole with the heart being the center of the homeostatic control. The components that control blood pressure in the heart play a significant role in homeostasis. Cardiac output (CO), Stroke volume, peripheral resistance, blood volume and heart rate all of these contribute towards regulating blood pressure in the body4. The cardiac output â€Å"is the volume of blood pumped put by each ventricle in 1 minute†5 . It can be measured by CO= Heart rate x Stroke volume, as the equation shows the CO depends on the heart rate and stroke volume (â€Å" the volume of blood pumped out by one ventricle with each beat†), therefore any changes in one of these would bring a change to the amount of blood pumped out of the ventricles1,6.The heart rate in controlled by the cardioinhibitory center located in medulla which sends signals through the parasympathetic nerves to the heart7. When the heart is at its resting state the stroke volume is controlled by the end diastolic volume1. When the body is under stress the activity on the sympathetic nervous system is increased by the cardioacceleratory center1. This results in increase in the heart rate and stroke volume by increasing the cardiac muscle activity. The peripheral resistance is adjusted or altered every now and then in order to maintain the fluctuation in blood pressure.The cardiovascular system and nervous system work together to maintain the mean arterial pressure (MAP) by changing the size of the blood vessels diameter, therefore if the blood pressure is low; blood vessels constrict apart from those supplying blood to the heart and the brain1,7. This result in an increase in peripheral resistance hence maintains the blood pressure to its normal range. These type of controls are operated through baroreceptors and vasomotor center located in the medulla.The increase in arterial pressure leads to stretching of baroreceptors; these are located in the aortic arch, carotid arteries and other large arteries8. The stretching of these baroreceptors sends signals to the vasomotor center8. This is responsible for altering the size of blood vessels. If the blood pressure is higher than this would be detected by the baroreceptors which in return would cause vasodilation of not only arteries but also veins, this dilation of the vessels reduces peripheral resistance1.The dilation of veins declines in the volume of blood returned to the heart therefore the cardiac output is also decreased, baroreceptors sends out impulses that stimulate activity of parasympathetic activity and reduce activity of the cardioacceleratory center therefore reducing the heart rate1,4,8. Similarly, if the blood pressure was low the vessels would constrict causing vasoconstriction; this increases peripheral resistance hence increase in the blood pressure. In addition to this, the body’s temperature has to be maintained for all the metabolic reactions taking place.These reactions are vital for survival and growth therefore the cardiovascular system and skin together maintain the optimum temperature. For example, if the surrounding temperature is low the blood vessels near the skin go under vasoconstriction by the sympathetic vasoconstrictor9. This results in blood not reaching to the skin and restricted to the areas away from the skin. Therefore heat loss is reduced significantly maintaining the body temperature to physiological range. Whereas if the temperature of the surrounding is high, the body must lose heat in order to keep its optimum temperature.It achieves this by dilating the blood vessels this allows blood to travel even more closely to the skin thus radiating the heat out9. On the other hand, if there is a homeostatic imbalance of the cardiovascular system (CVS) this can be life threatening. An imbalance could be caused by anything it can be a genetic disorder, unhealthy diet or a disease. An example of such a condition of CVS that can cause homeostatic imbalance is atherosclerosis. This condition blocks the artery and therefore leads to hypertension (homeostatic imbalance)10. The blockage of the artery is caused by damage to the tunica intima, this allows lumps of fatty substances such as lipids, cholesterol and LDLs to accumulate at the ruptured site1. Overtime reactions take place; these oxidize the LDLs which then act as chemotactic agents that attract macrophages8. These take up oxidized LDLs and ingest them, but they become so engorged that they turn into foam cells1,8. The foam cells build up overtime to form atheroma (plaque). Macrophages release chemicals, these make the smooth muscle cells move to the surface of the plaque and forming a covering8.Due to this obstruction the blood pressure and supply is affected, as a result the heart increases the contraction strength to meet the needs of the body causing hypertension. Consequently, the person is at a high risk of other diseases such as congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, stroke, damage to kidneys and many others10. It is still not sure what causes atherosclerosis however there are certain risk factors that increase an individual’s chance of having this condition. Some of these factors are diet rich in cholesterol, smoking, hypertension and family history 10,11.Overall, it is very clear how difficult it is to maintain homeostasis; the cardiovascular system plays a very important role and is involved in homeostasis directly and indirectly. However, every organ must carry out its job to maintain a constant internal environment; one small condition can lead to a complete collapse of the system. How to cite Homeostasis and Cardiovascular System, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Tigers Essays - Tigers, Fauna Of Asia, Biota, Tiger, Bengal Tiger

Tigers Tigers are descended from civet-like animals called niacis that lived during the age of the dinosaurs about 60 million years ago (Dang, 1994). These small mammals, with long bodies and short flexible limbs, evolved over millions of years into several hundred different species, including cats, bears, dogs and weasels. About 37 cat species exist today (Dang, 1994). Tigers evolved in eastern Asia , but it is not exact. Sabre-tooth tigers are not the ancestors of today's tigers. In fact, sabre-tooth tigers belonged to a separate branch of cat evolution which became extinct many millions of years ago. The Siberian or Amur tiger lives primarily in eastern Russia, and a few are found in northeastern China and northern North Korea. It is estimated that 437-506 Siberian tigers still exist in the wild (Tilson ,1995). About 490 captive Siberian tigers a re managed in zoo conservation programs (Tilson, 1995). The South China tiger is the most critically endnagered of all tiger subspecies. They are found in central and eastern China. It is estimated that only 20-30 South China tigers are left in the wild (Dang ,1994). Currently 48 South China tigers live in 19 zoos, all in China (Dang ,1994). The distribution of the Indochinese tiger is centered in Thailand, and is found in Myanmar, southern China, CAnbodia, Laos, Vietnam, and penisular Malaysia. About 1,180- 1,790 Indochines tigers are left in the wild and about 60 live in zoos (Tilson, 1995). Bengal tigers live in India, and some range through Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and Myanmar. The estimated wild population is approzimately 3,060- 4,735 tigers, with about 333 in captivity, primarily in zoos in India (Dang, 1994). White tigers are just white-colored Bengal tigers. They ae not a separate subspecies of tiger, and they are no albinos. They have blue eyes, a pink nose, and creamy white fur with chocolate colored striipes, White tigers are only born when two tigers that both carry the unusual gene for white coloring mate, Wild white tigers are very rare, and todayt they can only be seen in zoos. The Sumatrain tiger is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. About 400-500 wild Sumatran tigers are believed to exist, primarily inthe island's five national parks (Dang, 1994). Another 235 Simatran tigers live in zoos around the world (Dang, 1994). Three tiger subspecies have been considered to become extinct in the past 70 years (Tilson ,1994). The Caspian tiger, known as the Panthera tigris virgata, once ranged in Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, Mongolia, and Central Asiatic area of Russia and probably went extinct in the 1950's (Tilson, 1995). The Javan tiger, Panthera tigris sondaica, formerly ranged on the Indonesian island of Java and was last seen in 1972 (Tilson, 1995). The Bali tiger, Panthera tigris balica, once lived on Bali, where the last tiger was believed to have been killed in 1937 (Tilson, 1995). Tigers have social behavior. Adult tigers are solitary animal that establish their territories in areas with enough prey, cover and water to support them. The hardship of loating prey in tiger habitat makes it more efficient for tigers to hunt alone. As a result, they do not tend to form social groups like lions. A female tiger and her cubs are the exception to this, and will form a family group for 2 to 3 years, until the cubs are able to fend for themselves (Dang ,1994). The territory of a tiger usually ranges in size from about 10 to 30 square miles, although the territory of a Siberian tiger may be as large as 120 square miles (Tilson, 1995). Both male and female tigers spray bushes and trees along their route with amixture of urine and scent gland secretions. This is a way of declaring their territory. They also leave marks on trees, and urinate or leave droppongs in prominent places. Female tigers reach maturity when they area bout 3 years old and males reach it when they are a year or so later (Dang, 1994). In temperate climates, a tigress comes into heat only seasonally , but in tropical climates, she may come int heat throughtout the year. She signals her readiness with scent marking and locating roars. The brief act of copulaiton occurs continually for a five day period. Tigers